Humans have been transforming Earth for thousands of years, study says

first_imgArticle published by Shreya Dasgupta Agriculture, Archeology, Climate Change, Deforestation, Environment, Forests, Green, Land Use Change, Livestock, Research Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Some 3,000 years ago, our human ancestors were already substantially transforming Earth’s surface by farming and grazing livestock, according to a new study that crowdsourced the expert knowledge of more than 250 archaeologists from the around the world.This massive collaboration, termed the ArchaeGLOBE project, has helped build the first ever global picture of how human activities were altering the planet’s surface from 10,000 years ago right up to 1850.These estimates of the spread of agriculture and pastoralism suggest that humans were significantly transforming the planet earlier than what some recent studies and databases show, the researchers say.The ArchaeoGLOBE project dataset, however, has several data gaps and presents only part of our planet’s history. Look around, and you’ll see examples of how we’ve modified our planet’s land surface: roads, buildings, farms, plantations. But is the widespread human impact on Earth a modern occurrence? No, according to a new study published in Science.Some 3,000 years ago, our ancestors were already stripping away forests and substantially transforming Earth’s surface through farming and grazing livestock, researchers have found by crowdsourcing the expert knowledge of more than 250 archaeologists from the around the world.Archaeologists typically focus on a particular region and time period. But this massive collaboration, termed the ArchaeGLOBE project, has helped build the first ever global picture of how human activities were altering the planet’s surface from 10,000 years ago, long before there were written records to keep track of the same, right up to 1850, or after the industrial revolution.“Our open access dataset provides the first globally consistent dataset on land use over the past 10,000 years that is based on the expert knowledge of archaeologists,” Erle Ellis, a co-author of the study and professor at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, told Mongabay. “It describes both the global patterns of this knowledge over time, and the timing of the emergence of agriculture, pastoralism and urbanism, and the decline of hunter-gatherer land use.”To piece together humankind’s history of land use, the researchers divided Earth’s surface into 146 analytical regions spanning all continents except Antarctica. Then they sent out questionnaires to more than 1,300 archaeologists, asking them to contribute their understanding of how ancient peoples used the land in those regions at 10 different time points between 10,000 years ago up to 1850.They received responses from 255 of the archaeologists, whose local knowledge helped the researchers map some broad global historical patterns.Ten thousand years ago, for example, foragers and hunter-gatherers were widespread, while agriculture and pastoralism, or the practice of raising livestock, had been established in just a few regions around Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean.By 8,000 years ago, pastoralism had spread out to arid areas such as North Africa and Eurasia, and by 4,000 years ago it had become common and widespread across the planet. Some form of agriculture, too, had spread to nearly half of the studied regions and become widespread by 3,000 years ago. Over that same period, foraging, hunting and gathering declined.“One of the key questions remaining is to what degree hunter-gatherers modified landscapes around the world through burning, propagation of favored species, and other niche-constructing practices,” Ellis said. “Though our work confirms that hunter-gatherer use of land was widespread in most of the world by 10,000 years ago, the degree of their landscape modification and its local and global consequences demands further study.”Time-lapse map showing the spread of intensive agriculture across the globe over the past 10,000 years, based on ArchaeoGLOBE Project results. Image by Nicolas Gauthier.Time-lapse map showing the spread of pastoralism across the globe over the past 10,000 years, based on ArchaeoGLOBE Project results. Image by Nicolas Gauthier.These estimates of the spread of agriculture and pastoralism suggest that humans were significantly transforming the planet earlier than what some recent studies and data show, the researchers say. This includes the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) model, a popular database of past land-use change that scientists frequently use to predict future environmental changes.“We weren’t entirely surprised by the main findings because archaeologists have long been critical of the existing historical reconstructions of global land use based on models,” Ellis said. “However, we were impressed by the fact that archaeological experts confirmed that intensive agriculture emerged earlier, by centuries to thousands of years in many regions, than in the land use history model most used by Earth scientists.”K. Anupama, a researcher at the Laboratory of Palynology & Paleoecology, French Institute of Pondicherry, India, also said the results weren’t unexpected.“Traditionally, Earth and Ecological Sciences have been developed with a very clear distinction of ‘nature’ and ‘natural systems’ as something apart from all things ‘human’ or ‘human-made and/or human impacted,’” Anupama, who was not involved in the study, said in an email. “For long, this has been reflected in the assumptions underlying climate and earth system models too.“Archeologists, historians and the humanities in general have known better — even if their studies are bracketed as ‘qualitative,’” she added. “This paper, though the methodology is not robust, can be commended especially for its efforts to build transdisciplinary bridges that could eventually help obtain the ‘quantitative’ land use data that is key to modeling efforts that use past data to help predict futures in our planet Earth.”The ArchaeoGLOBE project dataset presents only part of our planet’s story. There are geographical gaps in archaeological evidence, for example. Many areas in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, in particular, have not been studied much with regard to ancient land use.“Many interrelated factors are responsible for the history of research in these areas, including resources and training available to archaeologists who study these areas, and the legacy of archaeological focus on ‘big monumental’ sites that draw tourists,” Lucas Stephens, who led the study while he was a doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, told Mongabay.It was also a challenge to connect with archaeologists outside the English-speaking world, Ellis said.“There were also regions where archaeologists had different assessments on land use histories, making consensus more difficult,” he added. “Nevertheless, we were delighted overall by the very positive responses of the more than 250 archaeologists that spent the time to contribute to our project.”Evidence of past land use is hard to come by, especially at the global scale. So, despite the data gaps and biases, the ArchaeoGLOBE project presents the “first approximation of the global history of land use,” Stephens said.“The IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] just recently released its report on land use, food production, and climate change, reinforcing the idea that these are critical issues for the future of the Earth,” Stephens added. “But there is also a deep history of anthropogenic changes to the planet that has yet to be meaningfully incorporated in these discussions. That needs to change, and the ArchaeoGLOBE Project is a big step forward in doing so.”Banner image of Val de Navarrés, País Valenciano, Spain, by Michael Barton.Citation:Stephens, L., Fuller, D., Boivin, N., Rick, T., Gauthier, N., Kay, A., … Ellis, E. (2019). Archaeological assessment reveals Earth’s early transformation through land use. Science, 365(6456), 897-902. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192last_img

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